re HYPNOSIS & HYPNOTHERAPY
Weight Loss & Weight Management,
Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy:
An in-depth study
of Weight Loss and Weight Management from the University of Connecticut, analysed 18 studies comparing a Cognitive Behavioral
Therapy (CBT), such as relaxation training, guided imagery, self monitoring or goal setting with the same therapy plus Hypnosis
/ Hypnotherapy. Those also receiving Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy lost more weight than 90 percent of the non hypnosis,
and still maintained the Weight Loss even two years after the treatment clinical trials ended.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Using Hypnosis
/ Hypnotherapy - The Lancet (1992):
British study of 18 adults with Irrititable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) published in The Lancet (UK), found that Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy "strikingly"
reduced colonic motility, thus decreasing diarrhea, cramping and the severe and continuous abdominal discomfort felt
by sufferers. (July 11, 1992).
Erectile Dysfunction, Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy - British Journal of Urology (1996):
In a detailed controlled study of 79 men with Impotence (difficulty maintaining
an errection) from no known organic cause, only Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy proved more effective than a placebo (empty
tablet), boosting sexual function by 80 percent (British Journal of Urology, February 1996).
Cut Stress and Boost Your Immune System, Using Hypnosis
/ Hypnotherapy - Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (2001):
A number of well-published Studies from around the world have concluded that periods of Anxiety or
Stress can severely hinder the body's immune system defenses. Now notable Researchers say people may be able to fight
back with the stress-relieving techniques of Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy. Researchers looked at 33 medical and dental students
during relatively low-stress periods and around the time of the first major exam of the term. The investigators found that
during exam time, the Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy students launched s=Stronger Immune Responses compared with students who
did not learn the Stress-Reducing technique. And the more often students practiced the anxiety and relaxation strategy, the
stronger their immune response. (Read in “Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2001, v. 69.)
De-Stress, Relax and Live Longer with Cancer,
Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy - Hull University:
was discovered that patients with Hodgkin's Disease or Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (Cancers) live longer if they receive
anxiety-relieving relaxation with Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy treatment along with standard chemotherapy alone. Leslie Walker
of Hull University studied 63 patients with newly diagnosed Cancers, all of whom were receiving Chemotherapy and standard
Anti-Nausea drugs. "We found that the patients who had received relaxation with Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy lived significantly
longer," he says.
Healing of Bone Fractures, Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy - Harvard Medical School (1999):
The prestigous Harvard Medical School (USA) conducted research on the use of Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy to
enhance physical healing. One group had individual Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy sessions and listened to Self-Hypnosis audio
tapes designed to increase Bone Healing, the other group did not have this. The results clearly showed a much faster healing
for the Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy group. The group who had the benefit of receiving Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy also had
much better Mobility and used far less pain killers. (Read in "Alternative Therapy Health Medicine, March, 1999,
pp.67-75, by C. Ginandes and S. Rosenthal.)
Inclusion of Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy and Biofeedback in the Medical Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia:
An expert panel assembled by the National Institutes of Health
has announced their finding that the use of Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy, Biofeedback, Meditation, and other behavioral therapies
should be used more widely for the treatment of Chronic Pain
and Insomnia (Sleep Problems). Further, the panel said those therapies should be reimbursed bv health insurance along
with standard medical care.
Alleviating Pain, Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy - Amercian Medical Association (1996):
for Surgery, Using Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy - Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (1997):
A controlled study of 32 Coronary Bypass (Heart Surgery) patients showed that those taught self-Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy pre-operatively, were much more relaxed after surgery and had far less need for pain medication
(Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, February 1997).
panel appointed by the National Institutes of Health found "strong evidence" for the use of Hypnosis / Hypnotherapy in
alleviating pain associated with Cancer (Journal of the American Medical Association, July 24-31, 1996).
Hypnotherapy for Tinnitus, re Audiol Neurootol
- Berlin Unversity of Medicine (2006):
A modified version of tinnitus retraining therapy: observing long-term outcome
Mazurek B, Fischer F, Haupt H, Georgiewa P, Reisshauer A, Klapp BF.
Tinnitus Centre, Department
of Otorhinolaryngology, Charite--University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany. email@example.com
Tinnitus retraining therapy
(TRT) in Germany includes not only directive counselling and sound therapy but also stress management and facultative psychotherapeutic
treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of this modified version of TRT on certain tinnitus-related
aspects of distress and variables that may predict treatment outcome. Clinical data from 92 patients undergoing outpatient
TRT in the Charite Tinnitus Centre were evaluated retrospectively over 1 year. Treatment outcome was defined by changes in
specific areas of tinnitus-related distress and assessed by the Tinnitus Questionnaire. Changes in audiometric frequency and
loudness of tinnitus were examined by regular audiometric testing. The overall Tinnitus Questionnaire score was significantly
reduced after 1 year. Severely affected tinnitus sufferers (decompensated tinnitus) profited more than less affected patients
(compensated tinnitus). In cases of indicated psychotherapy, improvement was significant for the patients who took advantage
of psychotherapeutic treatment during TRT but was not significant for those who interrupted or dismissed an indicated psychotherapy.
Changes in tinnitus-specific areas of distress were most pronounced in the scales for emotional and cognitive distress and
intrusiveness. Significant changes in sleep disturbances, auditory perceptual difficulties and somatic complaints were observed
in patients with decompensated tinnitus. In patients with chronic tinnitus, modified TRT may lead to significant subjective
improvement in certain tinnitus-related symptoms like emotional and cognitive distress and intrusiveness. Particularly patients
suffering from severe tinnitus distress take advantage of therapy. Careful psychotherapeutic diagnostics and therapies and,
if necessary, motivation to make use of psychotherapy seem to be essential preconditions for therapeutic success in patients
with severe psychosomatic comorbidity. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel. Anales
Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2001;28(1):75-85
Therapy perspectives in subjective tinnitus
Lacosta Nicolas JL,
Garcia Cano J.
Hospital San Millan (Servicio de O.R.L.), Logrono.
The AA. of this article have achieved a bibliographical
perusal about treatment of subjective tinnitus, including even papers based on controlled clinical trials. Pharmacologic agents
are settled on vasodilators of cochlear microcirculation (nimodipine, trimetazidine, Ginkgo biloba extract, misoprostol),
lidocaine, the anxiolytics (alprazolam, corazepam) and the antidepressants (nortrityline). Comments sonorous amplification.
Also are displayed, because of their benefits, the relaxation techniques (biofeedback, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and yoga)
and psychological counselling British
Journal of A meta-analytic review of psychological treatments for tinnitus re Audiology 1999 Aug;33(4):201-10.
Anderson G, Lyttkens L.
of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden. Gerhard.Andersson@psyk.uu.se
Meta-analysis is a technique of combining results
from different trials in order to obtain estimates of effects across studies. Meta-analysis has, as yet, rarely been used
in audiological research. The aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis on psychological treatment of tinnitus. The
outcomes of 18 studies, including a total of 24 samples and up to 700 subjects, were included and coded. Included were studies
on cognitive/cognitive-behavioural treatment, relaxation, hypnosis, biofeedback, educational sessions and problem-solving.
Effect sizes for perceived tinnitus loudness, annoyance, negative affect (e.g. depression) and sleep problems were calculated
for randomized controlled studies, pre-post-treatment design studies and follow-up results. Results showed strong to moderate
effects on tinnitus annoyance for controlled studies (d = 0.86), pre-post designs (d = 0.5) and at follow-up (d = 0.48). Results
on tinnitus loudness were weaker and disappeared at follow-up. Lower effect sizes were also obtained for measures of negative
affect and sleep problems. Exploratory analyses revealed that cognitive-behavioural treatments were more effective on ratings
of annoyance in the controlled studies. It is concluded that psychological treatment for tinnitus is effective, but that aspects
such as depression and sleep problems may need to be targeted in future studies. Clini
Excell Nurse Pract. 1998 Mar;2(2):73-82.
Subjective idiopathic tinnitus
Large Meta-Analyses - University of Konstanz,
Germany (2003):The authors considered a total of 444 studies on hypnotherapy published prior to 2002.
By selecting the best quality and most suitable research designs for meta-analysis they narrowed their focus down to 57 controlled
trials. These showed that on average hypnotherapy achieved at least 64% success compared to 37% improvement among untreated
control groups. (Based on the figures produced by binomial effect size display or BESD.)
A meta-analysis is formed from experts making conclusions, by comparing & combining
many different earlier trials.
In 2003, perhaps the most recent meta-analysis of the efficacy of hypnotherapy was published
by two researchers from the University of Konstanz in Germany, Flammer and Bongartz. The study examined data on the efficacy
of hypnotherapy across the board, though studies included mainly related to psychosomatic illness, test anxiety, smoking cessation
and pain control during orthodox medical treatment. Most of the better research studies used traditional-style hypnosis, only
a minority (19%) employed Ericksonian hypnosis.
According to the authors
this was an intentional underestimation. Their professed aim was to discover whether, even under the most skeptical weighing
of the evidence, hypnotherapy was still proven effective. They showed conclusively that it was. In fact, their analysis of
treatment designs concluded that expansion of the meta-analysis to include non-randomized trials for this data base would
also produce reliable results.
When all 133 studies deemed suitable in light of this consideration were re-analyzed,
providing data for over 6,000 patients, the findings suggest an average improvement in 27% of untreated patients over the
term of the studies compared with a 74% success rate among those receiving hypnotherapy. This is a high success rate given
the fact that many of the studies measured included the treatment of addictions and medical conditions. The outcome rates
for anxiety disorders alone, traditionally hypnotherapy's strongest application, were higher still (though a precise figure
is not cited). (Flammer & Bongartz, "On the efficacy of hypnosis: a meta-analytic study". Source: Wikipedia
Board of British Psychological Society (2001):
In 2001, the
Professional Affairs Board of the British Psychological Society (BPS) commissioned a working party of expert psychologists
to publish a report entitled The Nature of Hypnosis. Its remit was 'to provide a considered statement about hypnosis and
important issues concerning its application and practice in a range of contexts, notably for clinical purposes, forensic investigation,
academic research, entertainment and training.' The report provides a concise (c. 20 pages) summary of the current scientific
research on hypnosis. It opens with the following introductory remark:
"Hypnosis is a valid subject for scientific
study and research and a proven therapeutic medium."
With regard to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis, the
BPS arrive at much more positive conclusions.
"Enough studies have now accumulated to suggest that the inclusion
of hypnotic procedures may be beneficial in the management and treatment of a wide range of conditions and problems encountered
in the practice of medicine, psychiatry and psychotherapy."
The working party then provided an overview of
some of the most important contemporary research on the efficacy of clinical hypnotherapy, which is summarized as follows:
"There is convincing evidence that hypnotic procedures are effective in the management and relief of both acute
and chronic pain and in assisting in the alleviation of pain, discomfort and distress due to medical and dental procedures
"Hypnosis and the practice of self-hypnosis may significantly reduce general anxiety,
tension and stress in a manner similar to other relaxation and self-regulation procedures."
hypnotic treatment may assist in insomnia in the same way as other relaxation methods."
"There is encouraging
evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of hypnotherapeutic procedures in alleviating the symptoms of a range of complaints
that fall under the heading 'psychosomatic illness."
These include tension headaches and migraine; asthma;
gastro-intestinal complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome.
Warts; and possibly other skin complaints such as eczema,
psoriasis and urticaria.
"There is evidence from several studies that its inclusion in a weight reduction
program may significantly enhance outcome."
Medical Journal (1999):
In 1999, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) published a Clinical Review
of current medical research on hypnotherapy and relaxation therapies, it concludes:
"There is strong evidence
from randomised trials of the effectiveness of hypnosis and relaxation for cancer related anxiety, pain, nausea, and vomiting,
particularly in children."
"They are also effective for panic disorders and insomnia, particularly when
integrated into a package of cognitive therapy (including, for example, sleep hygiene)."
review has found that hypnosis enhances the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for conditions such as phobia, obesity,
"Randomized controlled trials support the use of various relaxation techniques for treating
both acute and chronic pain”
"Randomized trials have shown hypnosis to be of value in asthma and in
irritable bowel syndrome"
"Some practitioners also claim that relaxation techniques, particularly the
use of imagery, can prolong life. There is currently insufficient evidence to support this claim."
Department of Community Nursing, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912,
One out of every five individuals experiences tinnitus. Tinnitus is the tenth most common presenting
complaint among the elderly in primary care. Although tinnitus is often associated with hearing loss, chronic noise exposure,
and medications, its etiology frequently goes undetected. Diagnosis of subjective idiopathic tinnitus is established by a
comprehensive health history, physical examination, and office and laboratory diagnostic assessments. Patients who suffer
from this chronic symptom report a dwindling in their quality of life, primarily because of the annoyance factor associated
with tinnitus. Activities of daily living are affected in proportion to the intensity of the tinnitus. Examples of non-pharmacologic
management include hearing aids for those with hearing loss, hypnotherapy, counselling, and masking. A number of medications
have demonstrated some efficacy in the treatment of tinnitus. Ultimately, the practitioner is concerned with helping the individual
live with subjective idiopathic tinnitus by promoting self-care activities to improve both physical and mental-emotional health.
European Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1996 Issue II,
the treatment of tinnitus: Report on a pilot study/
Two comparing cohorts were assembled in order to
judge the efficiency of therapy: The first cohort was composed of 30 patients (18 women and 12 men) with an average age of
49.6 + – 13.6 (from 26 up to 74 years). They had been suffering for 7.6 + – 5.4 years (from 1 to 25 years) from
therapy-resistant tinnitus: (n=9 right-sided, n=17 left-sided and n=4 bilateral). Possible reasons were: N=10 acute deafness,
n=3 acute deafness more than once (recurrent attacks of acute deafness), n=8 whiplash injuries of the cervical column, n=4
after head injury, n =2 otosclerosis and n=3 suspicion of local infection. This study is of pilot character and is meant to
give an impulse to doctors, especially to neuro-otologists, otolaryngologists and neurologists, to study hypnotherapy in order
to apply it to patients. Although the statistics for this controlled parallel group study show significant results, they should
be judged only as “good trends”, because the control group was not interviewed all the time and the assessment
of tinnitus intensity was carried out subjectively. Objective measurements (e.g. synthesiser technique) should be included
in future. The author believes hypnotherapy in groups should be funded by insurance companies and that psychoanalysis is not
useful in the therapy of neuro-otological diseases. Journal
of Laryngol Otol. 1996 Feb;110(2):117-20.
Client centred hypnotherapy in the management of tinnitus--is it better than
Mason JD, Rogerson DR, Butler JD.
Hypnosis as an aid for tinnitus patients
Kaye JM, Marlowe FI, Ramchandani D, Berman S, Schindler B, Loscalzo G.
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19129.
This study was undertaken to evaluate hypnosis versus stress management as therapeutic
modalities in the treatment of tinnitus. Participants were recruited from the local tinnitus association and the Otolaryngology
Division of the Department of Surgery. The instruments were the following standardized tests (NIMH Diagnostic Int. Schedule;
SCL 90R, Beck Depression Inventory) in addition to a tinnitus questionnaire. Improvement was shown on 5 separate scales, some
alleviated by both types of treatment and others singularly by hypnosis or stress management. The data reinforce the use of
behavioural techniques and suggest that different techniques may be more appropriate for specific symptoms. Audiology. 1993 May-Jun;32(3):205-12.
self-hypnosis, masking and attentiveness for alleviation of chronic tinnitus
Attias J, Shemesh Z, Sohmer H, Gold
S, Shoham C, Faraggi D.
Institute for Noise Hazards Research and Evoked Potentials Laboratory, IDF Chaim Sheba Medical
Centre, Tel Aviv, Israel.
The efficacy of self-hypnosis (SH), masking (MA) and attentiveness to the patient's complaints
(AT) in the alleviation of tinnitus was evaluated. Forty-five male patients close in age with chronic tinnitus related to
acoustic trauma were assigned to three matched subgroups: SH, AT or MA. The therapeutic stimuli in the SH and MA sessions,
recorded on audio cassettes, were given to the patients for use when needed. Self-hypnosis significantly reduced the tinnitus
severity; Attentiveness partially relieved the tinnitus; Masking did not have any significant effect. Audiology. 1993;32:205-212.
A controlled trial
of hypnotherapy in tinnitus
Marks NJ, Karl H, Onisiphorou C.
A group of 14 patients with unilateral tinnitus
were selected because of the constant nature of their tinnitus, and its resistance to all other forms of therapy. They were
subjected to hypnosis in three forms in random order. The induction of a trance state alone formed the control arm of the
trial. Compared to this were the effects of 'ego boosting' and active suppression of tinnitus whilst in a trance state.
One of the 14 patients showed a highly significant response to the latter treatment as judged by visual
analogue scales. Five of the
14 patients (36%) found the induction of a hypnotic state of value. This
seemed to help them tolerate their tinnitus
better, although its loudness and quality were unaltered. American
Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1991 Apr;33(4):254-62.
Client-therapist collaboration in the preparation of hypnosis interventions:
Therapists can use hypnosis in a variety of situations to help clients utilize
their own resources effectively. In both heterohypnosis and tape-assisted self-hypnosis, the respectful collaboration of therapist
and client in the development of specific intervention strategies can be effective. I have described four cases to illustrate
the collaborative aspect of heterohypnosis in a surgical setting and tape-assisted self-hypnosis for anxiety, tinnitus, and
situational depression. In each case the clients were willing and able participants. Scandinavian Audiology 1990; 19,
Efficacy of self-hypnosis for tinnitus relief
Attias J, Shemesh Z, Shoham C, Shahar A, Sohmer H.
Institute for Noise Hazards Research, Chaim Sheba Medical Centre, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
The National Institute for Health, USA (1995):
In 1995, the National Institute
for Health (NIH), in the US, established a Technology Assessment Conference that compiled an official statement entitled "Integration
of Behavioral & Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain & Insomnia". This is an extensive report
that includes a statement on the existing research in relation to hypnotherapy for chronic pain. It concludes that:
The evidence supporting the effectiveness of hypnosis in alleviating chronic pain associated with cancer seems strong. In
addition, the panel was presented with other data suggesting the effectiveness of hypnosis in other chronic pain conditions,
which include irritable bowel syndrome, oral mucositis [pain and swelling of the mucus membrane], temporomandibular disorders
[jaw pain], and tension headaches. (NIH, 1995)
Department of Otorhinolaryngology,
Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby, UK (1995):
The aim of this study was to assess whether client centred hypnotherapy
(CCH) which required three sessions with a trained therapist was superior to a single counselling session in reducing the
impact of tinnitus. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either counselling (n = 42) or CCH (n = 44). The outcome measures
were: tinnitus loudness match, subjective tinnitus symptom severity score, trend of linear analogue scale, request for further
therapy and whether the patient had an impression of improvement in their tinnitus after treatment. CCH was no better than
counselling in reducing the impact of tinnitus using the three quantative measures of tinnitus, and requests for further follow
up. The only significant difference between the two therapies was that 20 (45.5 per cent) of the CCH group reported a general
sense of improvement compared to six (14.3 per cent) in the counselling group, this is significant p < 0.01. The study
did not demonstrate whether this was a genuine hypnotic effect or simply a response to the additional attention from the therapist.
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1995 Apr;37(4):294-9.
Client-centred hypnotherapy for tinnitus: who is likely to benefit?
Mason J, Rogerson D.
Royal Infirmary, United Kingdom.
In this study we prospectively analysed 41 patients, 15 females and 26 males with a
mean age of 54, who underwent three sessions of client-centred hypnotherapy for their tinnitus. Of these patients, 28 (68%)
showed some benefit for their tinnitus 3 months after completing their hypnosis, and 13 (32%) showed no evidence of improvement
for their tinnitus. Hearing loss was associated with a non-beneficial outcome for tinnitus treated with hypnotherapy. Of the
non-beneficial group, 46% had a hearing loss of 30 db or more in their better-hearing ear compared to less than 15% in the
beneficial group, a significant difference (X2 = 6.34, df = 1, p < 0.02). Client-centred hypnotherapy can be offered to
anyone who wants to have therapy for their tinnitus; in those with significant hearing loss the benefit may be less. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol.
Effects of relaxation therapy as group and individual treatment of chronic tinnitus
Winter B, Nieschalk M, Stoll W
Forty-two patients, suffering from chronic
tinnitus, participated in our psychological orientated treatment consisting of relaxation therapy with autogenic training
according to J. H. Schultz. The results of individual therapy are compared with group therapy. Using visual analogy scales
the therapeutical efficiency can be tested. The individual estimated loudness and annoyance of tinnitus are registered as
well as a general emotional status. The results show a positive short-time effect in most cases. A reduction of tinnitus loudness
and annoyance after individual and group therapy is seen directly. A positive effect throughout the whole treatment is only
found in individual therapy. Concerning the group therapy, many of our patients reported an increase of the pre-therapeutical
estimation of tinnitus loudness and -annoyance. We believe that the permanent confrontation with the tinnitus problem may
advance the psychological conflict in many cases. Therefore psychological management of tinnitus should be concentrated on
a temporary limited support aiming to the neglect of tinnitus sensation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1995 Apr;37(4):294-9.
hypnotherapy for tinnitus: who is likely to benefit?
Mason J, Rogerson D.
Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, United
In this study we prospectively analysed 41 patients, 15 females and 26 males with a mean age of 54, who underwent
three sessions of client-centred hypnotherapy for their tinnitus. Of these patients, 28 (68%) showed some benefit for their
tinnitus 3 months after completing their hypnosis, and 13 (32%) showed no evidence of improvement for their tinnitus. Hearing
loss was associated with a non-beneficial outcome for tinnitus treated with hypnotherapy. Of the non-beneficial group, 46%
had a hearing loss of 30 db or more in their better-hearing ear compared to less than 15% in the beneficial group, a significant
difference (X2 = 6.34, df = 1, p < 0.02). Client-centred hypnotherapy can be offered to anyone who wants to have therapy
for their tinnitus; in those with significant hearing loss the benefit may be less. Ear Nose Throat Journal. 1994 May;73(5):309-12, 315.
British Medical Association - Psychological Medicines Group, (1955):
In 1955, the Psychological Medicine Group
of the BMA commissioned a Subcommittee, led by Prof. T. Ferguson Rodger, to deliver a second, and more comprehensive, report
on hypnosis. The Subcommittee consulted several experts on hypnosis from various fields, including the eminent neurologist
Prof. W. Russell Brain, and the psychoanalyst Wilfred Bion. After two years of study and research, its final report was published
in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), under the title ‘Medical use of Hypnotism’.
The terms of reference
To consider the uses of hypnotism, its relation to medical practice in the present day, the advisability
of giving encouragement to research into its nature and application, and the lines upon which such research might be organized.
(British Medical Journal, 1955)
This is a much more thorough and extensive report, and constitutes one of the most
significant documents in the history of hypnotherapy research. With regard to efficacy, it concludes from a systematic review
of available research that,
The Subcommittee is satisfied after consideration of the available evidence that hypnotism
is of value and may be the treatment of choice in some cases of so-called psycho-somatic disorder and psychoneurosis. It may
also be of value for revealing unrecognized motives and conflicts in such conditions. As a treatment, in the opinion of the
Subcommittee it has proved its ability to remove symptoms and to alter morbid habits of thought and behavior.
addition to the treatment of psychiatric disabilities, there is a place for hypnotism in the production of anesthesia or analgesia
for surgical and dental operations, and in suitable subjects it is an effective method of relieving pain in childbirth without
altering the normal course of labor. ("Medical use of hypnosis", British Medical Journal, April, 1955)
According to a statement of proceedings published elsewhere in the same edition of the BMJ, the report was officially ‘approved
at last week’s Council meeting of the British Medical Association.’ (BMA Council Proceedings, BMJ, April 23, 1955:1019).
In other words, it was approved as official BMA policy. This statement goes on to say that,
For the past hundred
years there has been an abundance of evidence that psychological and physiological changes could be produced by hypnotism
which were worth study on their own account, and also that such changes might be of great service in the treatment of patients.(British
Soon afterwards, in 1958, the American Medical Association (AMA) commissioned a similar (though
more terse) report which endorses the 1955 BMA report and concludes,
That the use of hypnosis has a recognized
place in the medical armamentarium and is a useful technique in the treatment of certain illnesses when employed by qualified
medical and dental personnel. ("Medical use of hypnosis", JAMA, 1958)
Again, the AMA council approved
this report rendering hypnotherapy an orthodox treatment,
The Reference Committee on Hygiene, Public Health, and
Industrial Health approved the report and commended the Council on Mental Health for its work. The House of Delegates adopted
the Reference Committee report AMA Proceedings, JAMA, September 1958: 57
In 1892, the British Medical Association (BMA) commissioned a team of doctors to undertake an extensive evaluation
of the nature and effects of hypnotherapy, they reported:
The Committee, having completed such investigation of hypnotism
as time permitted, have to report that they have satisfied themselves of the genuineness of the hypnotic state. (British Medical
The Committee are of opinion that as a therapeutic agent hypnotism is frequently effective in relieving
pain, procuring sleep, and alleviating many functional ailments [i.e., psycho-somatic complaints and anxiety disorders].
This report was approved by the general council of the BMA, thereby forming BMA policy and rendering hypnotherapy
a form of "orthodox", as opposed to complementary or alternative, medicine.
Subsequent research on hypnotherapy
has tended to highlight four main areas in which its efficacy as a treatment has been demonstrated,
Psycho-somatic disorder, i.e., stress-related illness
Hypnotherapy has many
other applications but research into its effectiveness has tended to focus upon these issues. More mixed results have been
obtained for its efficacy in relation to the treatment of addictions, an area where high relapse is common with most treatments.